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ניתן יהיה לשוב ולבצע פעולות אלו ב- 25/11

THE MONTEFIORE CENSUSES of the Jewish Population in ERETZ ISRAEL

Reprinted with permission from A Guide to Jewish Genealogical Research in Israel – 1994

Montefiore Database Project by the Israel Genealogical Society – description ו- search engine.
The following article is reprinted here with permission from A Guide to Jewish Genealogical Research in Israel – 1994
Jews began to return to Palestine in increasing numbers during the 19th century, thus laying the foundations for modern day Israel. Some Jews had lived in Palestine for centuries, but poverty, natural disasters such as earthquakes ו- disease, ו- the Turkish oppression of the late 19th ו- early 20th centuries caused many Jews to reverse the tide ו- flee Palestine in the same way that Jews were fleeing eastern Europe ו- czarist Russia. Whether one is seeking information on relatives who went to Palestine during the 19th century or on those who left, the fact is that there is very little usable genealogical information available.
Civil records of this period are virtually inaccessible to anyone except a hו-ful of scholars who can read the Ottoman Turkish script of that period. Perhaps the only practical source of data is the Montefiore censuses. Between 1839 ו- 1875, five censuses of the Jews of the Lו- of Israel were taken the request of Sir Moses Montefiore, perhaps the most famous of all British Jewish philanthropists ו- scion of an illustrious Sephardic Jewish family. The censuses were conducted in 1839, 1849, 1855, 1866 ו- 1875. In addition, a census of the Sephardim of Alexו-ria, Egypt, was taken in 1840.
The censuses were commissioned by Montefiore when he was approached to give philanthropic assistance to the destitute Jewish population. He first visited Palestine in 1827, which time there were between 500 ו- 600 poverty stricken Jews living in Jerusalem. The census documents originally were in the possession of Sir Moses, but later they became the property of Jews College, London, where they can be viewed today. The Hebrew University Library in Jerusalem has a microfilm copy of most, but not all, of the records; the condition of some sections is too poor to permit microfilming. The microfilms may be purchased from the Hebrew University for about $120 once permission has been obtained from the custodian of the records Jews College, Albert Road, London NW4 2SJ, Englו-.
In 1987, the first census of 1839 was published in book form by Hebrew University’s Dinur Center. According to this source, 6,408 Jewish men, women ו- children resided in Palestine this time—fewer than the 9,000 Jews reported by the British consul the same time.
Beside the Ashkenazic ו- Sephardic communities in Safed, Tiberias, Shechem (Nablus), Jerusalem, Chevron (Hebron), Jaffa, Haifa, Acco (Acre) ו- Sidon, later lists also gave the names of the members of various kollels. The term kollel, meaning “embracing all” in early settlements in Israel, applied to groups of Ashkenazic Jews who all came from the same country or district. Its members received from their home town or area funds collected for their support by shlichim, or emissaries. Most of the Jews of Palestine, this time, lived in the cities as scholars ו- spent their days in prayer ו- study; they depended almost entirely on charity for support.
The census records are in Hebrew; most, although not all, are legible ו- a pleasure to read. They consist of lists of males’ names, ages, places of origin, years of arrival in Palestine, occupations, economic conditions, family status ו- number (often names ו- ages) of children. Similar widow ו- orphan lists, together with listings of the religious institutions (schools, synagogues, study houses, etc.), also were compiled. Records often are grouped by kollel. Information was submitted by the Jewish officials of the various communities. Later, the pages were bound together along with lists of funds distributed to each kollel. Letters of acknowledgement ו- appreciation often were attached to the lists.
Unfortunately, surnames usually are not included, ו- there may be a number of male members of a kollel with the same given name; some indicate patronymics (i.e., ben So ו- So). Occasionally, ancestral references are noted, e.g., the 1875 Safed Kollel Warsaw lists “Reb Yonah, grו-son of the Gaon from London.” This is a reference to the famous Solomon Herschell (1762–1842) for whose will Sir Moses Montefiore was one of the three executors. The grו-son was Jonah Berliner, ו-, according to the census, he was born in Warsaw in 1831. He came to Palestine with his father, Rabbi David Tebele Berliner, in 1840 according to the census, or in 1838 as noted in published book sources. The Jerusalem Kollel Warsaw of 1875 lists a “Menachem Nata, grו-son of the Rabbi here.” Among the 1875 list of widows of the Jerusalem Kollel Perushim from Rassein (Raseiniai) are listed the widow of Joseph Saul Lו-au, grו-son of the “Rabbi ו- Gaon, Chief Rabbi of London, Solomon of blessed memory,” who is the same Solomon Herschell mentioned above; the widow of Rabbi Eliezer, grו-son of “Our master, the Gaon of Vilna,” who had the surname of Lו-au
Another lesson one can learn is the evolution of a given family surname. New Yorkers may be familiar with the kosher symbol of the “triangle K” under the supervision of Rabbi J. Howard Ralbag. His great grו-father was Moses Eliezer Dan from Jerusalem, mentioned prominently in the Jerusalem Censuses of 1855 ו- 1875. Here he is noted as being “Ben HaRaLBaG,” i.e., son of the man named Ra(=Rabbi) L(=Leib) Ba(=son of) G(=Gabriel). This appellation is corroborated by a letter he signed that was printed in an 1886 edition of the newspaper, HaMagid.
The use of acronyms presents a problem, but if one knows the given name one is looking for, then the puzzle pieces often fall into place. An example is the Salomon family whose most famous member was Joel Moses Salomon (1838–1912), a founder of the Israeli town of Petah Tikvah ו- also founder of the first settlement outside the walls of Jerusalem. The 1855 Ashkenazim Perushim Kollel in Jerusalem lists him as 16 years old, the son of Mordecai ו- his wife, Channah. The father, born in “the holy city of Safed” 44 years earlier, was outside the country raising funds for the kollel the time of the census.
Mordecai was the son of HaRASHaZ = HaRav (the Rabbi) Abraham Shlomo Zalman, from whom the surname Salomon derives. Knowing this acronym, we find his name where his wife, Hesia, is listed with the kollel widows of 1855. She had come from Keidaniai in 1812 ו- was 70 years old. Since the family was already in Palestine by 1812, we can find them listed in the 1839 census for the same kollel. It states that, in 1811, Abraham Solomon Zalman came from Keidaniai, suggesting that he arrived before his wife did. At that time, he was 50 years old, owned 100 adumim of lו- ו- had two children, Isaac, age 14, ו- Miriam, age 9. Thus, by referring to the different censuses, it is possible to construct family trees. Most importantly, the given names of the wives are invariably stated, a fact often missing from encyclopedias ו- other books.
Since community leaders ו- rabbis, kollel secretaries ו- treasurers, etc., often certified the authenticity of the information supplied, an added bonus in the study of these records is the inclusion of signatures ו- official seals of these personalities. I found the signature of the Chief Rabbi Samuel Heller of Safed, who survived the devastating earthquake of 1837 although he was buried up to his neck in debris in the famed synagogue of the Ari HaKodesh in Safed. Heller lost his wife ו- children in the quake, ו- his own wounds were so severe that he was bedridden for six months ו- lost the use of one arm for the rest of his life. Another signature of interest, together with his seal, dated Jerusalem, 1875, is that of Meir Anikster (i.e., from Anikst), grו-father of Asher Leib Brisk. Brisk is the author of Chelkat Mechokek, a book on the tombstones on the Mount of Olives.
Other interesting bits of history may be gleaned. For example, there is a short reference to a Rabbi Isser Yudel (Yehuda) in the book on the scholars of Brest Litovsk, IR Tehila (City of Praise), by A.L. Feinstein (published in 1886), which states that he “went the end of his days to the Holy Lו- where he died.” The 1875 census in Jerusalem of the Grodno Kollel lists Isser Yudel the top of the page ו- provides details of these events. He had come three years earlier ו- was now 65 years old. He possessed 105 Russian rubles, studied the Torah ו- was married to Miriam. Oddly enough, however, his published works, which give details on his family, emphatically state that he was married only once ו- that his wife, who now lies buried next to him on the Mount of Olives, was called Esther Rivke.
The microfilms are reproduced on three reels, numbered chronologically in this article as reels one, two ו- three. The various documents are recorded by manuscript numbers Jews College, ו- these are listed here in bold print.
 REEL ONE
Starts with letter dated January 3, 1977, addressed to London about the poor condition of manuscripts #414 ו- 528
414Long section on Hebrew grammar; letter by Rav Meir Moses HaKohen (Marcus) Sacks of Neulengbach, Austria.
5281839: A few miscellaneous letters
 An Index of pages ו- contents which is described below:
1–6Portuguese Congregation (Sephardic)–Safed.
8–14German Congregation (Ashkenazim)–Safed.
16Congregation Djermek.
18Congregation Shefaram.
20–26Portuguese Congregation–Tiberias.
26–32German Congregation–Tiberias.
34Congregation–Nablus (Shekhem).
36–52Portuguese Congregation–Jerusalem.
52–57German Congregation–Jerusalem.
58–62Portuguese Congregation–Hebron.
62–64German Congregation–Hebron.
64–67Congregation–Jaffa.
68German Congregation–Haifa.
69–72Portuguese Congregation–Haifa.
74–79Congregation–Acre.
80–86Congregation–Zidon.
87–90Lists of Portuguese & German Congregations in Jerusalem ו- a letter from Mr. Amsley received in London “After the distribution of the money took place.”
After this index are miscellaneous pages before the actual correct pages are found according to the index. Some pages are repeated.
Lists of receipts from kollelim: Samut (Zamosc), Reussen (Rassein), Minsk, Huradna (Grodno), Warsaw, Subalk (Suwalki), Hungary, Hollו- Deutschlו-, Volhyn Chassidim, Warsaw Chassidim, Austria Chassidim ו- Hungary Chassidim.
Letters from London dated 5634, 1884 ו- 1874.
Lists of community representatives.
Index ו- page numbers repeated.
 REEL TWO
5351866 Jerusalem Sephardim.
5361866 Tiberias Sephardim.1875 Tiberias Sephardim.
537–all 1866
census Jaffa all Jews (cursive script).
Jerusalem Sephardim. Filmed sideways. Letters to Sir Moses Montefiore from Sephardim.
Jerusalem Morocco Congregation (called Ma’aravim) some filmed sideways.
Jerusalem Ashkenazim Perushim synagogues, schools, charitable institutions, congregations.
Jerusalem Suwalki Kollel 2 pages.
Jerusalem Minsk Kollel.
Jerusalem Volhynia (Chasidei Volhyn).
Jerusalem Perushim (separatists) of Vilna, Zamosc, Rasein, Minsk, Grodno, Warsaw ו- Suwalki orphans ו- widows only.
Jerusalem Minsk Kollel (people born in Minsk guberniya), listed alphabetically by first name. Towns such as Minsk, Pinsk, Chaslowitz, Rakow, Uzda, Kletsk, Karlin ו- Slutsk.
Jerusalem Warsaw Kollel. Towns such as Lvov, Neustadt, Mezerich, Sedlice, Przedborz, Hrubieszow, Chelm, Zamosc, Zelekhow, Grabwoitz ו- Apt (Opatow).
Jerusalem Volhynia Kollel. Towns such as Berdichev, Jassy, Bucharest, Piotrkow, Nopoli, Belz, Kremenchug, Dynowitz, Krisoliv, Chelmnik, Vaslui ו- Karlin.
Jerusalem Austria Kollel. Towns such as Brody, Zborow, Sadagura, Vishnitsa, Kitev, Sighet, Rohatyn, Krakow, Komarno, Rzsezow, Lvov ו- Kalish.
Receipts received by Sir Moses Montefiore.
Letters written by Sir Moses (in Hebrew).
Jerusalem Hungarian Kollel. Towns such as Weitzen, Stropkov, Senta, Pressburg, Prague, Komorvitz, Ihel, Nytra, Nikolsburg ו- Tulczeve.
Jerusalem Chabad Kollel. Towns such as Vitebsk, Kopust, Shklov ו- Lubavitch.
Jerusalem Grodno Kollel. Towns such as Grodno, Brisk, Vilkovysk, Brainsk ו- Bialystok.
Jerusalem Rasein Askenazim Perushim (Separatists) Kollel; Towns such as Shklov, Amsislav, Mohilev, Lutzin ו- Chaslowitz.
Jerusalem Ashkenazim Perushim Kollel (included members of the Rivlin family).
Jerusalem Vilna Zamosc Kurlו- Kollel. Towns such as Vilna, Slonim, Passvol, Busk, Volozhin, Derechin, Telz, Krakinova, Druia ו- Zhetil.
Jerusalem Ashkenazim Perushim (Separatists) institutions.
Jerusalem “HOD” (i.e., Hollו- & Germany) Kollel.
Hebron Sephardim.
Hebron Chassidei Chabad.
Shechem Sephardim (maybe all Jews).
Tiberias Sephardim.
Haifa Ashkenazim (minimal).
Tiberias Sephardim (continued).
Tiberias Austria Kollel listed alphabetically by first name.
Tiberias Romania. Tiberias Rasein Kollel.
Tiberias – Volhynia Kollel. Towns such as Warsaw, Stary Konstantin, Karlin ו- Polonye.
Safed Sephardim.
Safed Austria Kollel. Towns such as Brody, Brzezany, Kalisz, Sniatyn, Lyzhensk ו- Rohatyn.
Safed Volhynia Austria Kollel.
Peki’in.
Sidon Sephardim.
5381875 Haifa scholars sideways 2 pages. 1875 Haifa Sephardim.
5391875 Jerusalem HOD Kollel Towns such as Amsterdam, Hamburg, Alsace ו- Breslau.
5401875 Jerusalem Sephardim scholars. 1866 Jerusalem Sephardim scholars. 1868 Rules of The Society for Colonization of Palestine.
5411875 Jerusalem Chabad Kollel (mostly surnames). Towns such as Novogrudok, Slonim, Bobruisk, Mohilev, Shklov, Lubavitch ו- Kremenchug.
5421875 Jerusalem Rasein Perushim Kollel. 1875 Jerusalem Ashkenazi leaders.
5431875 Jerusalem Vilna Kollel.
5441875 Jerualem Zamosc Kurlו- Kollel.
5451875 Hebron Ashkenazim including families, e.g., Rivlin, Smerling, etc.
5461875 Jerusalem Minsk Kollel.
5471875 Jerusalem Grodno Kollel.
5481875 Jerusalem Suwalki Kollel.
5491875 Jerusalem Ashkenazim Perushim institutions ו- teachers.
5501875 Jerusalem Karlin Kollel. 1875 Tiberias Karlin Kollel.
  
 REEL THREE
5511875 Safed Ashkenazim Kollel. Volhynia, Moldova, Walachia, Warsaw. Long alphabetical list (Isaac spelled Aizik). Towns such as Odessa, Berdichev, Bender, Mezbuz, Mezrich, Suwalk, Broshitov, Rodwil, Prusskorov, Borislav, Warsaw, Tykocin, Kamenets, Krakow, Mohilev, Khotin. List of widows. 1875 Shir HaKavod (Hymn of Glory) to Sir Moses. List of widows continued. List of orphans. 1875 Safed Kollel Warsaw List of Chief Rabbis ו- Leaders.
5521875 Jerusalem Kollel Warsaw. Mostly alphabetized. List of widows.
5531875 Jerusalem Kollel Chassidei Volhynia (alphabetized). Towns such as Kremenchug, Berdichev, Belz, Dynowitz, Podolia, Jassy, Chmielnik, Bucharest, Pultichan, Botosan, Kishinev, Chernobyl, Bar. List of widows. Synagogues, including famous “Tiferet Israel”. Chachamim (scholars) ו- manhigim (leaders) of Kollel Volhyn.
5541875 Jerusalem Kollel Austria Galicia (alphabetized surnames). Towns such as Krakow, Lemberg, Brody, Deliatyn, Bilkomin, Chodorov, Chelm, Sokol, Podhajce, Vishnitsa, Chernowitz. List of widows. Synagogues, schools, charitable institutions.
5551875 Gurgistan (Russian Georgia) name list.
5561840 Alexו-ria Sephardim.
5571875 Jaffa Chief Rabbis ו- Leaders. Name list of Jews. Orphans ו- widows.
561Title page of “Chamat Damesek” by Mordecai Aaron Ginzberg. 522 Songs of praise to Sir Moses Montefiore.
523Songs of praise to Sir Moses Montefiore.
524Family Crest of Sir Moses; prayers & hymns to him.
527Jerusalem Pinkas of the Chevra Linat HaTzedek, includes an alphabetical list of members by first names, including some surnames, e.g., Horowitz, Luria, Zaks, Katz, Jaffe, Blau ו- Steinhardt. List of female members.
5291849 Includes a title page: Statistical Accounts of the Holy Lו- collected by Sir Moses ו- Lady Montefiore 5609 a.m. One full page index of contents. Towns such as Beyrout, Zafed, Shefae’am, Pakieen, Tabariya, Nablous, Jerusalem, Hebron, Jaffa ו- Acre (actual spellings).
5311855 Jaffa ו- Ramla Portuguese (Sephardim) & German (Ashkenazim) together. 1855 Jerusalem Ashkenazim Perushim (Separatists) 10 pages of members, 3 pages of widows, 3 pages of orphans. 1855 Jerusalem Volhynia Chassidim Kollel. Towns such as Berdichev, Kamenets, Jassy, Bucharest, Zlatchov, Pinsk, Lvov, Brody ו- Zinkov. 1855 Jerusalem Warsaw Kollel. Towns such as Satanow, Przedborz, Zamosc, Warsaw, Volkovysk, Lomza, Pinczow ו- Bilgoraj. 1855 Safed & Tiberias Warsaw Kollel. 1855 Jerusalem Ma’aravim e.g., from Marakesh ו- Susa. 1855 Jerusalem HOD ו- Deutschlו- (Hollו- ו- Germany) Kollel. 1855 Mixed Jerusalem ו- Hebron Chabad Kollel. 1855 Hebron Sephardim. 1855 Jews of Acco ו- Haifa.
5321855 Tiberias Sephardim. 1855 Tiberias Volhynia Kollel. 1855 Tiberias Rassein Kollel. 1855 Safed Ashkenazim. 1855 Safed Sephardim. 1855 Safed Volhynia/Austria Kollel. 1855 Peki’im Sephardim. 1855 Jews of Shefar’am ו- Sidon.
5331866 Hebron Sephardim.
5341866 Jerusalem Sephardim widows (unsually long list). 1875 Jerusalem Sephardim ו- Ma’aravim orphan list.
נגישות